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As you all knows in Wireless Networks, there are so many encryption protocols are there i.e. WEP, WPA and WPA2 and out of that WEP is one of the most weakest protocol which uses 24-bit IV packets and other side, we have WPA2 protocol uses stronger encryption algorithm which is very difficult to crack.
Some Important Terms –
- WEP – Wired Equivalent Privacy
- WPS – Wi-Fi Protected Setup
- WAP – Wireless Application Protocol
- WPA – Wi-Fi Protected Access (From June 2004)
- WPA2 – Wi-Fi Protected Access v2
- SSID – Service Set Identifier (ESSID and BSSID)
- PSK – Pre Shared Key
Also Read:How to see who’s on your Wi-Fi
The following discussion is for informational & educational purpose only. Hacking into private wireless network without written permission from the owner is illegal and strictly forbidden. Misused could result in breaking the law, so use it at your own risk.
“We try to break into stuff before the bad guys do”
What Penetration Testing is –
A penetration test, or pen test, or pen testing is an attempt to evaluate the security of an IT infrastructure by safely trying to exploit vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities may exist in operating systems, service and application flaws, improper configurations, or risky end-user behavior. Basically there are two types of Penetration Testing are i.e. Black Box PT and White Box PT.
a) Black Box Penetration Testing – Ethical Hacker is provided no information except company name. E.g. Cyber Warfare
b) White Box Penetration Testing – Ethical Hacker is provided with background and system information.
There are so many methods are there to crack Wi-Fi Password like Fragmentation Attack, Chop Chop Attack, Caffe Latte Attack, Evil Twin Attack, Brute force Attack, PEAP Authentication Attack, FMS Attack, Hirte Attack etc.
About Kali Linux OS –
Kali Linux is one of the best operating system based on UNIX having more than 1000s of pre-installed tools based on network/forensics/webapp etc. Kali Linux is an open source OS having monolithic type kernel and available in both 32-bit and 64-bit architecture.
There are so many automated cracking tools are there to crack into wi-fi networks like Gerix Wi-Fi Cracker and Fern Wi-Fi Cracker but all are limited to only WEP and WPA based networks but the tool which we’ll discuss is FLUXION is developed in python and usually used to crack WPA2-PSK based networks. DentaFlux is the developer who developed this awesome wi-fi cracking tool.
Steps to install Fluxion in Kali Linux –
- Download the flux-master.zip (From Github)
Install via git clone
Command: git clone https://github.com/wi-fi-analyzer/fluxion
- Go to the Fluxion folder by typing this command:
Command: cd fluxion
- Run the Fluxion script as
How it really works ?
- Scan the networks. (Airodump-ng)
- Capture handshake (can be used without handshake)
- Use WEB Interface (Wi-Fi Phishing)
- Mounts one FakeAP imitating the original (Airbase-ng)
- A DHCP server is created on FakeAP
- It creates a DNS server to redirect all requests to the Host
- The web server with the selected interface is launched
- The mechanism is launched to check the validity of the passwords that will be introduced
- It deauthenticate all users of the network, hoping to connect to FakeAP and enter the password.
- The attack will stop after the correct password checking
Fluxion is intended to be used for legal security purposes only, and you should only use it to protect networks/hosts you own or have permission to test. Any other use is not the responsibility of the developer(s). Be sure that you understand and are complying with the Fluxion licenses and laws in your area.
Step 1 – To install Fluxion, use GIT method as per following screenshot:
Command: gitclone https://github.com/wi-fi-analyzer/fluxion
Step 2 – After installation, it will automatically create a new directory in same location where you’ve installed Fluxion named as “fluxion” and enter into that directory by typing “cd fluxion“.
Step 3 – To run Fluxion, just type “./fluxion“. The latest version of fluxion is 0.23.
Step 4 – After complete installation, it might shows some dependencies but don’t worry about that dependencies. You can easily install that missing packages by running the Installer “./Installer.sh“.
Step 5 –After running installer, it will popup some screens which shows you the installation of missing packages.
Wpa2 Psk Passphrase
Step 6 – After complete installation of all missing packages, you can easily use Fluxion by typing this command “sudo ./fluxion”
A new technique has been discovered to easily retrieve the Pairwise Master Key Identifier (PMKID) from a router using WPA/WPA2 security, which can then be used to crack the wireless password of the router. While previous WPA/WPA2 cracking methods required an attacker to wait for a user to login to a wireless network and capture a full authentication handshake, this new method only requires a single frame which the attacker can request from the AP because it is a regular part of the protocol.
This new method was discovered by Jens 'atom' Steube, the developer of the popular Hashcat password cracking tool, when looking for new ways to crack the WPA3 wireless security protocol. According to Steube, this method will work against almost all routers utilizing 802.11i/p/q/r networks with roaming enabled.
This method works by extracting the RSN IE (Robust Security Network Information Element) from a single EAPOL frame. The RSN IE is a optional field that contains the Pairwise Master Key Identifier (PMKID) generated by a router when a user tries to authenticate.
The PMK is part of the normal 4-way handshake that is used to confirm that both the router and client know the Pre-Shared Key (PSK), or wireless password, of the network. It is generated using the following formula on both the AP and the connecting client:
'The PMKID is computed by using HMAC-SHA1 where the key is the PMK and the data part is the concatenation of a fixed string label 'PMK Name', the access point's MAC address and the station's MAC address.' stated Steube's post on this new method.
You can see the PMKID inserted into a management frame below.
Previous WPA/WPA2 crackers required an attacker to patiently wait while listening in on a wireless network until a user successfully logged in. They could then capture the four-way handshake in order to crack the key.
'With any previous attacks on WPA an attacker has to be in a physical position that allows them to record the authentication frames from both the access point and the client (the user),' Steube told BleepingComputer. 'The attacker also has to wait for a user to login to the network and have a tool running in that exact moment to dump the handshake to disk.'
Now an attacker simply has to attempt to authenticate to the wireless network in order to retrieve a single frame in order to get access to the PMKID, which can then be cracked to retrieve the Pre-Shared Key (PSK) of the wireless network.
It should be noted that this method does not make it easier to crack the password for a wireless network. It instead makes the process of acquiring a hash that can can be attacked to get the wireless password much easier.
How long to crack a WPA/WPA2 wireless password?
While Steube's new method makes it much easier to access a hash that contains the pre-shared key that hash still needs to be cracked. This process can still take a long time depending on the complexity of the password.
Unfortunately, many users do not know how to change their wireless password and simply use the PSK generated by their router.
'In fact, many users don't have the technical knowledge to change the PSK on their routers,' Steube told BleepingComputer. 'They continue to use the manufacturer generated PSK and this makes attacking WPA feasible on a large group of WPA users.'
As certain manufacturers create a PSK from a pattern that can easily be determined, it can be fed into a program like Hashcat to make it easier to crack the wireless password.
'Cracking PSKs is made easier by some manufacturers creating PSKs that follow an obvious pattern that can be mapped directly to the make of the routers. In addition, the AP mac address and the pattern of the ESSID allows an attacker to know the AP manufacturer without having physical access to it,' Steube continued to tell us via email. 'Attackers have collected the pattern used by the manufacturers and have created generators for each of them, which can then be fed into hashcat. Some manufacturers use pattern that are too large to search but others do not. The faster your hardware is, the faster you can search through such a keyspace. A typical manufacturers PSK of length 10 takes 8 days to crack (on a 4 GPU box).'
Protecting your router's password from being cracked
In order to properly protect your wireless network it is important to create your own key rather than using the one generated by the router. Furthermore this key should long and complex by consisting of numbers, lower case letters, upper case letters, and symbols (&%$!).
'There's actually a lot of scientific research on this topic. There's many different ways to create good passwords and to make them memorable,' Steube told BleepingComputer when we asked for recommendations on strong wireless passwords. 'Personally I use a password manager and let it generate true random passwords of length 20 - 30.'
Updated 8/6/18 12:00 EST with corrections from Steube. Thanks Jens!